NC Essential Science Standards: Physics


  1. Forces and Motion

    Phy.1.1.1 — Analyze motion graphically and numerically using vectors, graphs and calculations. 

    Phy.1.1.2 — Analyze motion in one dimension using time, distance, and displacement, velocity and acceleration. 

    Phy.1.1.3 — Analyze motion in two dimensions using angle of trajectory, time, distance, displacement, velocity and acceleration. 

    Phy.1.2 — Analyze systems of forces and their interaction with matter.

    Phy.1.2.1 — Analyze forces and systems of forces graphically and numerically using vectors, graphs and calculations. 
     •  Physics of Walking

    Phy.1.2.2 — Analyze systems of forces in one dimension and two dimensions using free body diagrams.
     •  Physics of Walking 

    Phy.1.2.3 — Explain forces using Newton’s laws of motion as well as the universal law of gravitation. 

    Phy.1.2.4 — Explain the effects of forces (including weight, normal, tension and friction) on objects.
     •  Physics of Walking 

    Phy.1.2.5 — Analyze basic forces related to rotation in a circular path (centripetal force). 

    Phy.1.3 — Analyze the motion of objects based on the principles of conservation of momentum, conservation of energy and impulse. 

    Phy.1.3.1 — Analyze the motion of objects in completely elastic and completely inelastic collisions by using the principles of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy. 

    Phy.1.3.2 — Analyze the motion of objects based on the relationship between momentum and impulse. 

  2. Energy: Conservation and Transfer

    Phy.2.1 — Understand the concepts of work, energy and power, as well as the relationship among them.

    Phy.2.1.1 — Interpret data on work and energy presented graphically and numerically. 

    Phy.2.1.2 — Compare the concepts of potential and kinetic energy and conservation of total mechanical energy in the description of the motion of objects. 

    Phy.2.1.3 — Explain the relationship among work, power and energy. 

    Phy.2.2 — Analyze the behavior of waves.

    Phy.2.2.1 — Analyze how energy is transmitted through waves, using the fundamental characteristics of waves: wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude and wave velocity.

    Phy.2.2.2 — Analyze wave behaviors in terms of transmission, reflection, refraction and interference.

    Phy.2.2.3 — Compare mechanical and electromagnetic waves in terms of wave characteristics and behavior (specifically sound and light).

    Phy.2.3 — Analyze the nature of moving charges and electric circuits.

    Phy.2.3.1 — Explain Ohm’s law in relation to electric circuits.

    Phy.2.3.2 — Differentiate the behavior of moving charges in conductors and insulators.

    Phy.2.3.3 — Compare the general characteristics of AC and DC systems without calculations.

    Phy.2.3.4 — Analyze electric systems in terms of their energy and power.

    Phy.2.3.5 — Analyze systems with multiple potential differences and resistors connected in series and parallel circuits, both conceptually and mathematically, in terms of voltage, current and resistance. 

  3.  Interactions of Energy and Matter

    Phy.3.1 — Explain charges and electrostatic systems.

    Phy.3.1.1 — Explain qualitatively the fundamental properties of the interactions of charged objects. 

    Phy.3.1.2 — Explain the geometries and magnitudes of electric fields.

    Phy.3.1.3 — Explain how Coulomb’s law relates to the electrostatic interactions among charged objects. 

    Phy.3.1.4 — Explain the mechanisms for producing electrostatic charges including charging by friction, conduction and induction.

    Phy.3.1.5 — Explain how differences in electrostatic potentials relate to the potential energy of charged objects. 

    Phy.3.2 — Explain the concept of magnetism. 

    Phy.3.2.1 — Explain the relationship between magnetic domains and magnetism. 

    Phy.3.2.2 — Explain how electric currents produce various magnetic fields. 

    Phy.3.2.3 — Explain how transformers and power distributions are applications of electromagnetism.